This paper was presented at the Chappel Natural Philosophy Society (CNPS) 2016 Conference in College Park, Maryland. Later, the table on page 3 was corrected and now indicates an orbital year always consists of 31,557,600 seconds. The loss of one of those orbital seconds, a leap second, is significant.

The leap second represents a slowing of Earth’s rotational velocity (spin). The current mathematical model was derived from LOD (length of day) work by Stephenson and Morrison and is based upon a solar day equaling 86,400 seconds. This model wrongly attributes the slow down to tidal friction and possibly a redistribution of Earth’s internal mass, all of which presume a constant mass with some questionable transference of energy and momentum to change orbital motion.

In an expanding universe, the orbits of planets (with or without moons) are becoming larger. An increase in Earth’s mass would slow the rotational velocity and, according to Newton’s inverse square law, would also increase the orbital distance from the Sun. In essence, the leap second quantifies additional mass and verifies a growing Earth with an expanding orbit. The totality of expanding orbits of all the other planets would expand the universe.

(revised 1/23/2017)

The leap second represents a slowing of Earth’s rotational velocity (spin). The current mathematical model was derived from LOD (length of day) work by Stephenson and Morrison and is based upon a solar day equaling 86,400 seconds. This model wrongly attributes the slow down to tidal friction and possibly a redistribution of Earth’s internal mass, all of which presume a constant mass with some questionable transference of energy and momentum to change orbital motion.

In an expanding universe, the orbits of planets (with or without moons) are becoming larger. An increase in Earth’s mass would slow the rotational velocity and, according to Newton’s inverse square law, would also increase the orbital distance from the Sun. In essence, the leap second quantifies additional mass and verifies a growing Earth with an expanding orbit. The totality of expanding orbits of all the other planets would expand the universe.

**See the below paper on Growing Earth / Expanding Universe**(revised 1/23/2017)

growing_earth-expanding_universe01232017revised.pdf | |

File Size: | 268 kb |

File Type: |

**Leap seconds quantify Earth's growing mass**

Periodically, “leap second” adjustments are made to align Earth’s orbital clock with the linear atomic clock. A decrease in rotational velocity (spin) would require an increase in mass in accord with conserving angular momentum.

*Every “leap second” adjustment offers scientific evidence that Earth’s mass is increasing.*Quantifying the additional mass using leap second data from Wikipedia follows:

Between 1980 and the end of 2016, there were 18

*LS*in a 36 year period averaging 1

*LS*/ 2 yrs. Thus, 1

*LS*/ 2 yrs = 0.5 / 31,557,600 seconds per year = 1.584404391 E-8.

Therefore, the amount of mass required to slow the rotation of Earth’s present mass by one half leap second with no change in angular momentum is:

5.98 E+24 x 1.584404391 E-8 = 9.474738258 E+16 kg/yr.